• Flying the Bridge Across Lake Michigan

    Posted on January 24th, 2011 John Dorcey No comments

    Imagine flying an open-cockpit airplane across Lake Michigan. It is January 1933 and you fly the “Bridge Across Lake Michigan” route for Kohler Aviation Corporation. The company flies the route four times daily, 12 months a year. The airline has been flying passengers and express between Milwaukee and Grand Rapids, Michigan, since September 1, 1929.

    Maitland Field seaplane ramp, ca 1930

    The wind swirling into the cockpit is cold and brings with it rain, sleet, and snow. While the air is cold, the lake’s surface is even colder. You know, that if needed, rescue craft would be hours away as you study the wind-whipped surface of the lake. The waves increased in size a few miles back and now white caps are torn from their tops by the ever-present wind. You shrink down into your winter flying clothes attempting to find warmth, silently praying for an uneventful lake crossing.

    Company founder, John B. Kohler, has been unsuccessful in winning a lucrative air mail contract for the over-lake route and points east. Things are tough for everyone working for the fledging carrier.

    Not every Kohler flight across Lake Michigan was successfully completed. Newspaper accounts provide details of three failed flights.

    Aircraft recovery, Milwaukee Harbor, August 28, 1932

    Sunday, August 28, 1932
    James Benedict, pilot and Patrick Gossett, co-pilot
    The aircraft taxied out the seaplane ramp at Maitland Field, taxied across the harbor to the entrance and began its takeoff run just before 7:30 a.m. Witnesses report the airplane “hopped” three to six times during its attempt to takeoff. Reports the aircraft took off downwind were investigated by company president John Kohler. His report of no wind conflicted with weather bureau reports of a 12-knot wind at the time of the accident.

    Pilot James Benedict describes the takeoff, “We got up about 20-feet when the airplane seemed to enter a ‘dead air’ area and would not gather forward speed.” Benedict reported that the left pontoon was smashed as the airplane struck the water. Kohler reported that the aircraft suffered more damage while under tow than during the accident.

    A total of seven people were aboard the Loening C-2C Air Yacht, all employees of Kohler Aviation. Only one passenger was injured; Edmund Laskowski suffered a minor scalp wound.

    Saturday, March 4, 1933
    Pilot Roy E. Pickering and copilot Ben Craycroft
    The westbound flight was observed passing over Grand Haven, Michigan, at 10:09 a.m. bound for Milwaukee. When Milwaukee reported the aircraft was long overdue, another Kohler Aviation aircraft departed Grand Rapids, Michigan, and began search efforts.

    The incident aircraft had suffered a broken throttle rod and landed on the choppy lake surface at 10:20. The crew, alone in the airplane, was only 10-miles off the Michigan coast. A strong northeast wind carried the airplane to a point about 6-miles offshore from Wind Point Lighthouse in Racine County, Wisconsin. The cross-lake journey had lasted more than seven hours. Coast Guard crews from Milwaukee and Racine responded, finding the aircraft listing slightly due to taking on water.

    Thursday, December 28, 1933
    Pilot Pat Gossett and copilot Ben Craycraft
    The afternoon flight from Milwaukee taxied out at 3:10 and was airborne for about 30 minutes when, according to pilot Pat Gossett, “…the motor quit. I don’t know what happened, valve trouble I guess.”

    Gossett and his co-pilot Ben Craycraft told their harrowing story to a newspaper reporter. “We were flying about 200 feet up. There’s not much use making altitude over the lake. The ceiling was low. I turned into the wind and landed. We knew we were in for it. It was getting dark. We both knew the ship would float and that the company would be out looking for us.”

    The company did begin looking soon after the flight was reported overdue. Pilots Roy Pickering and Archie Leighton had just completed their westbound flight when they took off looking for their co-workers. They returned to Milwaukee after 7:00 p.m. without sighting the downed airplane. Several other aircraft were prepared to resume the search the next morning.

    Gossett continued, “Waves were rolling high. We were sitting in the cabin for about 5 hours when the right pontoon snapped off. Then the right wing cracked. The ship started to list and we had to get out on the left wing to balance it. We dragged the mail out after us and hung on.”

    Pilot Pat Gossett and co-pilot Ben Craycraft were seasoned aviators, both serving in the military.  “Way down deep, I thought we’d never see land again. The waves were hitting the plane hard. We could hear it rip and crack. I knew it wouldn’t be long before it went down,” said Gossett. He added, “Then we saw a light.”

    The light the wet, tired, and frigid crew saw was the Coast Guard cutter Escanaba. It was just before midnight when the Escanaba crew pulled Gossett and Craycraft aboard.  The pilots had been on the water for more than eight hours. Coast Guard crews from all along the Wisconsin and Michigan shores had been searching for the downed airmen since receiving the report at 5:30 p.m. The Escanaba had steamed more than 53 miles from its home port of Grand Haven, Michigan, during the search.

    Gossett, when asked if he would fly again, responded, “I was seasick, cold, and tired. Scared? Never, I will be flying again tomorrow.”

  • Bridge Across Lake Michigan

    Posted on January 2nd, 2011 John Dorcey No comments

    Frank and John B. Kohler of Grand Rapids, Michigan, envisioning an aerial “Bridge across Lake Michigan” founded Kohler Aviation Corporation on August 30, 1929. Passenger and freight service between Milwaukee and Grand Rapids began the next day. Travel time between the cities (90 miles straight line distance) was reduced from 14 hours by rail to 1 hour and 10 minutes by air. One-way fare was $18; a round-trip ticket cost $30.

    Kohler Aviation, Loening C-2C, Milwaukee ca 1930

    The airline owned five Loening C-2C Air Yacht amphibian aircraft. The Air Yacht carried six passengers in an enclosed cabin while the pilot flew from an open (two-seat) cockpit. Powered by the Wright Cyclone (525-hp) the aircraft cruised at 102mph. The aircraft had a gross weight of 6,250 pounds, a range of 500 miles, and cruised at 102 mph. Loening built 23 examples of this model.

    Just three months later, during November 1929, Kohler Aviation sold their routes to Northwest Airways. Kohler, under contract with Northwest, continued to provide the scheduled air service. Kohler was awarded air mail route CAM 32, as a Northwest Airways subcontractor, between Milwaukee and Detroit on March 1, 1933. The first air mail was flown the next day, departing Milwaukee at 7:30 am, with an intermediate stop at Muskegon. Scheduled arrival time in Detroit was 11:25 am. The first schedule included four daily flights—two in each direction.

    Headquarters, Kohler Aviation, Grand Rapids MI ca 1930

    President Franklin Roosevelt cancelled all air mail routes on February 19, 1934 and turned the air mail over to the military. Tragic results and ballooning costs caused the government to reconsider. On May 8, 1934, President Roosevelt and Postmaster General James Farley reinstituted private carriage of the mail. It was too late for Kohler Aviation Corporation.

    Their bid for the new Detroit – Milwaukee route was denied by Postmaster Farley. Kohler Aviation had been used by former TWA President Richard Robbins as a test case. Robbins, who was forced out of TWA for his involvement in the Spoils Conference of 1930, convinced Kohler they would benefit from his involvement. Robbins was named Vice-President of Kohler Aviation. It was then that the carrier’s application for their own contract was denied by the Post Office. Robbins then resigned from Kohler.

    Kohler Aviation declared bankruptcy in May 1934, and their assets were acquired by Pennsylvania Airlines in June 1934. Pennsylvania Airlines would be renamed Capitol Airlines in 1948 and later still merged with United Airlines. There was no relationship between Kohler Aviation Corporation and the Kohler Corporation of Kohler, Wisconsin.

    Images courtesy of Eddie Coates.